bwiza.com
Ahabanza » Urugomo mu Madini (violence dans les religions)- Igice cya 1
Featured Iyobokamana

Urugomo mu Madini (violence dans les religions)- Igice cya 1

Ntagengwa Omar Servil

Urugomo rukorwa n’abitwaje idini cyangwa abiyitirira idini rukomeje guhitana abantu n’ibintu byabo hirya nohino ku isi. Ibyo biravugwa kandi amadini yose avuga akanemeza ko ishingiro ryayo ari Imana y’urukundo, y’Amahoro.

Urugomo cyangwa violence si umugani uriho turarubona kuko nta munsi w’ubusa uhita tutumvise aho bagaritse ingogo ngo mu izina ry’Idini cyangwa se mu izina ry’Imana.

Idini rya Islam rirasa n’iryibasiwe n’isiyose ko ariryo nyirabayazana y’urugomo n’akaga gakorwa mu izina ry’Imana . Nyamara byaba ari ukwirengagiza nkana cyangwa se kwibagirwa vuba kuko urwo rugomo rugaragara mu madini yose ndetse no mu bihe byose , nkuko amateka yavuba n’aya cyera abigaragaza.

Muri iyi nyandiko twifuje kugeza ku basomyia bwiza.com isesengura ry’icyo kibazo kugirango tugisobanukirwe neza ndetse tubashe no kukigiraho igihagararo mu buryo buzira amarangamutima. (objectivité)

Bityo, nshingiye ku bitabo bitagatifu (Bibiliya, Ivanjilina Coran) ku buyisilamu hakiyongeraho Sunaty’Intumwa y’Imana ndetse n’amateka ye (tradition prophétique) biramutse bikuwe mu bihe bya byo (sortir du contexte) bishobora kuyobya ibisobanuro by’amagambo kugeza n’ubwo bihesha ireme n’ishingiro urugomo bikozwe mu izina ry’ukwemera. Ubwa kabiri ndagerageza kwifashisha amateka nerekana uburyo yagize uruhare mu kumvikanisha no guhindura imyumvire y’ibyo abaje nyuma bita amadini y’ukuri.

Kuva mu kinyejana cya mbere kugeza uyu munsi nyuze mu ihindagurika rikomeye: twavuga nk’ivuka ry’ubukristu nyuma ya Yezu (ikinyejana cya 1-4: ishingwa ry’Idini y’Ubukristu), ihishurwa rya Coran mu kinyejana cya7, n’intambara zabikurikiye zabyaye kwigarurira ibihugu by’Abaromani na Byzance n’ishingwa ry’ibyitwa imyigishirize y’Ubusilamu (sciences Islamiques cg Ulumu din), intambara z’imisaraba zashojwe n’ibyiswe reconquisita muri Espagne (1492). Ubwanyuma turareba ibyerekeye Urugomo n’Intambara zo mu kinyejana cya 19-21mu ntambara zo kwibohoza n’izindi zazivutseho mu rugomo rushya. Ndasaba buri wese uzasoma iyi nyandiko ko yagerageza kubona ko kwiga ibijyanye n’idini byaba byiza tubifatiye mu buryo bwagutse burenze ibireba iyobokamana n’amahame y’ukwemera (dimensionmultivariante) ntaguha agaciro gato iby’ukwemera ariko ntitwibagirwe uruhare rw’amateka byose byanyuzemo kugeza magingo aya.

2.Ubushakashatsi twifashishije (cadrethéorique) Mu kugeragereza kubisesengura twifashishije ibyakozwe n’Abashakashatsi batandukanye duhuriza hamwe ingero z’ubuhanga zitandukanye. Bityo buri wese mungeri azisangamo ayitangeho ibitekerezo, agira ibyo yongeraho (critique), agira ibyo asobanuza cyangwa ashimangira.

2.1. Bidusaba rero kubanza gusobanura muri macye aya magambo abiri: IDINI, URUGOMO (religionetviolence) . Tuzareba ibisobanuro by’idini mu buryo bw’iyobokamana (théologie), no mu buryo bw’ubumenyi bwa Muntu (sciences humaines). Tuzasesengura urugomo (violence) duhereye:

(1) duhereye mu byahishuwe (révélation) (2) duhereye mu buryo abantu bagennye imyemerere (conceptualization théologique) guerejuste: StAugustin, St Thomas D’Aquin, Jihad: Intambara ntagatifu, (3) duhereye k’uburyo abantu babaho (analyse anthropologique): triangle anthropologique, Mohamed Arkoun, (4)duhereye kumateka : uko byagenze (analyse historique): Mohamed Sherif Ferjani (5) duhereye k’ucyo isiga mubayoboke (analyse psycho-sociale)

Twifashishije abahanga na theories zabo zikurikira:

Rémi Brague : avuga   ko kuva isi yaremwa ntambaga y’abantu itararanzwemo ibintu bibiri: Idinin’urugomo (religion etviolence), akongeraho ati “ n’ubwo byombi ubisangamo ntawavuga ko kimwe gikomoka kukindi, kimwe kirigenga. (Rémi Brague : Surla Religion édFlammarion 2018)

R e n é G ira rd : U b u s h a k a s h a ts i b w e , u w itw a J e a n B o is s a n a t a b u k u b ira m u b in tu n k a bitatu : idini uburyo butagatifu bwo gutuma urugomo rwihanganirwa (lesacré) Leta yagize urugomo umwihariko wemewe, (monopole de la violence) n’intambara nk’uburyo bwo gutunganya Urugomo (organization de la violence) (Laviolence et lesacré, édFayard 1972, conference la 77 semainesociale 16/11/02).

Mohamed Arkoun : Yize ikibazo cy’urugomo n’amadini afatiye kunjyana ya René Girard yongeraho irindi songa muri conceptyise: Mpande shatu y’imibereho : Ukuri, Ubutagatifu, Urugomo (triangle anthropologique: Vérité, sacré, violence) .Avuga ko buri mbaga y’abantu igira ibyo yita ukuri ,ikabigira bitagatifu , ikiyemeza kubirengera n’iyo byazana urugomo ) ibi tubisanga mu gitabo cya Rachid Benzine cyitwa : les Nouveaux Penseursde l’Islam éd Albin Michel, no muri conference ya Prof Leilael Bachiri, iGénève taliki ya 22/12/2014. Kuri aba hiyongeraho n’inyandiko zitandukanye z’abahanga muri yo ngeri.

Mohamed Chérif Ferjani: asesengura iby’abasilamu abihereye mbere y’ihishurwa rya Coran, akanyura ku gihe cy’Intumwa y’Imana sw, akagera mu mbaga y’abasilamu bakwiriye isi (Le Politique et le Religieux dans le champ islamique édFayard 2005)

2.2. Itandukaniro riri hagati y’ubusilamu n’Ubukristu ku ijambo : IDINI , mbere yo kwerekana itandukaniro riri hagati y’Ubusilamu n’Ubukristu ku ijambo Idini, twasanze byaba byiza gusobanukirwa itandukaniro remezo (fondamentale)hagati y’ayo madini yombi mubijyanye n’Ubutumwa cyangwa n’imyigishirize yabwo.

  1. Ubutumwa nyirizina:
 Ubutumwa bwa Coran bwavuye ku Mana buzanwa na Malaika Gibril (Gabriel) abushyikiriza Muhamad (sw) nawe abugeza ku bantu uko yabwakiriye. Ubutumwa bw’Ivanjiri si ijamboYezu yahishuriwe gusa harimo ibikorwa n’amagambo ye, byagereranywa na Hadiths . Mbese uko ababanye nawe bavuga ibye . Uwitwa Pasteur Hugues Lehnebach avuga kw’iyo tuvuga amavanjili tuba tuvuga uko abigishwa baYezu bumvise, uko babanye nawe(amarangamutima yabo)

b.Uburyobw’ihishurwa: Ubutumwa bwavuye ku Mana (révélation) bwaje muburyo bwitwa ibara nkuru (naration), narration izana ubutumwa ibunyujije mu nkuru z’imigani (récitsmythiques), ibyo bituma ikoresha imvugo iziguye (langage ya parabole, métaphore cg symbolique). Ikaba itandukanye na langage yitwa discursive cyangwa conceptuel.

1 Évangileet Liberté
2 MohamedArkoiun:fondationMohamedArkoun:médiathèque:questionréponse

Ubutumwa bwose bwahishuwe hano turavuga Bibiliya, Ivanjilina Coran, byahishuwe mu miterere y’indimi zo muri kariya karere (logosphèresémitique: Igiheburayo, n’icyarabu) Ivanjili ya Yezu mu kwamamazwa kwayo bikorerwa mu rurimi no mu muco wa kigereki (logosphère grecque). Abagereki bakoreshaga icyitwa Logos gitandukanye na Mythos

3.Isesengura ryimbitse ry’amagambo (concepts) idini n’urugomo

3.1.1. Idini
 Turagerageza gusobanura idini mu myumvire ya kisilamu n’iyagikristu

3.1.1.Igisobanuro cy’idini mu myumvire yakisilamu.

Mu gitabo : Dictionnaire du Coranéd Robert Lafont, Paris2007 cyasobanuye ijambo idini mu buryo burebure. Nkaba nifuje kubibagezaho ngenekereje kubihindura mu kinyarwanda. Icyitonderwa: Hamenyerewe ku ijambory’igifaransa Religion risobanurwa nk’Idini ryo mu rurii rw ‘Icyarabu. Nyamara iyo ubirebye ntibivuga kimwe kubera kw’imico y’izo ndim i zombie tandukanye. Gusa ntan’uwavuga ko bihabanye cyane.

Ijambo idini ryakoreshejwe inshuro 92 muri Coran, harimo inshuro 47 mu ma Sura yahishuriwe iMakka, n’inshuro 45 mumasura tya Madina. Muri izo nshuro naho hazamo ibisobanuro by’ubwoko butatu nk’uko byerekanwana Yazbeck Haddad. 1/ Muminsi ya mbere ya Makka, dinb yasobanuraga:Urubanza, ibihembo yawm din 2:4) Umunsi w’urubanza. 2/ Igisobanuro cya kabiri kiboneka muri ayat nka 30 zo mumasurata nyu maya Makka. Bikavuga ibijyanye n’amategeko n’imigirire (coutumes et lois) bikajyana no kuyibombarikaho bizana umuco mwiza mu bantu.I yo myitwarire Bravmann Michael abihuza n’imyitwarire myiza ya Muntu, inzira nziza igana ku Mana,yadinu, daynmbese nk’ideni Umuntu agirira Imana kubyiza yamugiriye ndetse bakabihuza na Tawhid. (Cor8:39, 12:76)

3/Igisobanuro cya gatatu: ikigice kizamo ayatza nyuma za Makka n’ iz’i Madina. Cyerekana idini y’amategeko y’Inyoko Muntu niho hazamo idini ya Ibrahim, idiniya Ummat Muslimat .Ahaniho Coran igaragaza cyane kubaho kw’idini imwe ibereye abantu bakwiye kwibombarikaho kuko yahishuriwe Intumwa zose, hakaza kubaho kuyitatira (altérer) hanyuma Muhamad (sw)a kazana urwibutso rubagarura kw’idini nyayo batannye ishingiye kuri almithaaq (alianceoriginele). Ikigice nicyo abanditsi bosebashyize imbere. (6:161, 61:9)

3.1.2. Igisobanuro cy’ idini mu myumvire ya gikirisitu:

Ijambo Idini ryagize urugendo rungana nk’urw’Ubukristu ubwabwo. Muziko ihishurwa rya Bibiliya ndetse n’Ivanjili ya Yezu byabereye muri Palestina (Yeruzalemu, Galileya, Nazareti etc) abigishwa be bahise bimukira m’Ubugereki, hanyuma muri Roma (Ubutaliyani). ubutumwa bwajemo. Langage ihindutse, bihindura ubutumwa maze ibyari

Parabole (kuvugira mu migani) bihinduka concept langage iva muri parabole ihinduka discursif. (diskuru iteguye, ikurikiranye mu buhanga bwahimbwe na Aristote:rhétorique aristotélicienne ) Ikigaragara ni uko iryo hindagurika ry’ijambo idini ryaterwa n’iryo hinduka ryabaye hagati y’ihishurwa n’iyamamazwa (révélation na expansion cyangwa propagation) bigira ingaruka k’ubutumwa ubwabwo.

Tuzakomeza nindi nyandiko ubutaha…..

 

Izindi wakunda

2 Ibitekerezo

Urugomo mu Madini - Igice cya kabiri - bwiza.com 12/06/2019 8:50 am at 8:50 am

[…] Urugomo mu Madini (violence dans les religions)- Igice cya 1 […]

Subiza
Urugomo mu Madini – Igice cya gatatu - bwiza.com 17/06/2019 8:38 am at 8:38 am

[…] Urugomo mu Madini (violence dans les religions)- Igice cya 1 […]

Subiza

Tanga Igitekerezo

Bwiza.com
error: Alert: Ntabwo byemewe!!