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Igitekerezo: Duhashye baringa z’itangazamakuru gashozantambara

Intambara zigira amoko menshi, harimo izimenyerewe zikoresha ibya gisirikari, ibitwaro biremereye ari n’ibyoroshye. Hari n’intambara zishingiye ku bukungu ( Economic war), izo kuri internet n’izindi. Muri iyi nyandiko, ndibanda ku yindi ntambara ikomeye ikunze guherekeza, kujyana, gusasira no kubanziriza izo zindi: Itangazamakuru.

Igihe cyose Itangazamakuru ridahabwa ubushobozi abaturage bazabihomberamo

 

Abazi neza ibya gisirikari, bavuga ko hari intambara ivugwa, mu gihe igihugu kimwe cyateye ikindi (conventional war), maze abasirikari b’igihugu runaka bakambuka umupaka binjira mu kindi gihugu bityo bakagaba igitero ku birindiro by’abasirikari b’ikindi , bityo urugamba rukarema. Hari ubundi buryo abasirikari bakora ibitero shuma no gutega imitego abasirikari b’ikindi gihugu aribyo bita “guerrilla” , hari ubundi bwoko bw’intambara aho abaturage basubiranamo bakamarana ( Civil war), Ibyaha bikorerwa hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga ku mbuga nkoranyambaga hifashishijwe murandasi ( internet crimes).

Kugira ngo byumvikane neza, mu gihe cy’intambara habaho icengezamatwara , ubukangurambaga, iyamamazabitekerezo bigakorwa hifashishijwe abantu ( cadres), ibitangazamakuru nka radio, televiziyo, ibinyamakuru byandikwa mu mpapuro cyangwa ibyandikwa kuri murandasi.

Igihe cyose itangazamakuru ridahabwa ubushobozi abaturage bazabihomberamo

Itangazamakuru nta ntambara iryirengagiza kuko rifasha kugera ku ntego y’umurwanyi. Ni yo mpamvu usanga henshi, aho kurikoresha kinyamwuga, bahitamo kurikoresha muri propaganda. Nyamara nk’uko twakunze kugenda tubigarukaho, itangazamakuru rigira inshingano eshatu z’ingenzi kandi zitaziguye, ari zo:

– kumenyesha abaturage ibyabaye hirya no hino ku isi ( informer),

– guhugura cyangwa gukangurira abaturage gahunda zinyuranye z’igihugu hagenderewe kuzamura imibereho myiza yabo n’iterambere ( Eduquer/ Former) no

-kuruhura , kugusha neza abarikurikira mu gihe bakitse imirimo cyangwa bari mu bikorwa runaka ( Divertir)!

 

Kubera imbaraga itangazamakuru rifite mu guhindura ubuzima bw’abaturage muri rusange, n’imitekerereze by’umwihariko, ni yo mpamvu usanga rikenerwa cyane cyane n’abategetsi cyangwa se abanyemari mu gihe cyose hakenewe imbaraga z’abaturage. Iyo bitangajwe ko Meya (mayor) yagiranye inama n’abaturage, bucya mu gitondo bashima umunyamakuru ko akora akazi ke neza. Umunyamakuru atavuga iyo nkuru, bikitwa ko atazi umwuga we.

Umunyamakuru ni we umenya inkuru niba koko ari yo cyangwa ko hari icyo yakungura abaturage. Umuturage na we akifuza ko ibyo akora cyangwa akorerwa byatangarizwa ubutegetsi kugira ngo ashimwe, agenerwe inkunga, cyangwa se arenganurwe mu gihe hari akarengane. Kubera urwo ruhare rutaziguye rw’itangazamakuru mu buzima bw’igihugu, usanga umunyamakuru akenerwa cyane no mu bihe bidasanzwe, nko mu gihe cy’ intambara, cyangwa igihe cyose hari umwuka utameze neza mu banyapolitiki, cyangwa hagati y’ibihugu bibiri. Byagaragaye kenshi ko mu bihugu bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere, itangazamakuru ryagiye rikoreshwa mu gukora propaganda. Ibyo bikaba byaragiye bigira ingaruka zikomeye ku gihugu, aho abaturage bahatikiriraga kubera kuyobywa n’itangazamakuru.

Iki gice kirakomeye cyane kuko itangazamakuru ryiza ryubaka igihugu ryaba ribi rikagisenya! Ni yo mpamvu mujya mwumva ko mu banyamakuru hari ababogamiye kuri Leta, ababogamiye ku barwanya Leta, n’abigenga babogamiye ku nyungu z’abaturage.

Gusa rero, uruhande waba ukorera urwo ari rwo rwose, ntacyo byaba bitwaye, igihe cyose umunyamakuru yaba atabogamiye mu bitekerezo byawe, cyangwa ngo yifashishwe mu kuroha no kuyobya abaturage.

Kuvuga ku itangazamakuru n’uruhare rwaryo mu kubaka cyangwa gusenya, umunyarwanda wese uciye akenge yabyumva byihuse. Turibuka uruhare rw’itangazamakuru mu itegurwa no mu gihe cya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu 1994. Ingero ni nyinshi, aho bimwe bimwe mu bitangazamakuru byirirwaga bikangurira abaturage b’ubwoko bumwe kurimbura ubundi. Aho ntimwibuka RTLM , Kangura n’ibindi? Muribuka bavuga ko hari abantu bafite imirizo n’amatwi manini atendera ? Muribuka amazina Inzoka cyangwa Inyenzi yakoreshwaga ? Muribuka amategeko 10 y’abahutu? Muribuka indirimbo z’abahanzi babaye ibirangirire icyo gihe kubera ibihangano bibiba urwango ?

Uwabaza buri wese, yavuga ko itangazamakuru ritari rimeze neza kuko ryasaga ni iryataye umurongo kubera kubogama. Isomo twakuyemo rero ni uko twiboneye ingaruka z’itangazamakuru ribiba urwango. Ni yo mpamvu nyuma ya 1994, hatangiye kugaragara ishusho y’itangazamakuru ritandukanye n’iryaribanjirije. Inzego zinyuranye zashyizweho hagamijwe gukosora ibyakosamye mbere. Umuntu ntiyabura kuvuga ko hari intambwe yatewe muri urwo rwego no gushimira ababigizemo uruhare bose, baba abayobozi n’abanyamakuru, cyane cyane ko, nyuma ya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, bagaragaje ubwitange, bagakora badahembwa, usibye ifu y’ibigori n’amavuta yitwaga USA.

Intabaza: haracyari ba Kantano!

Nubwo habayeho impinduka nziza zigaragarira buri wese, hari abo ubona bagikeneye gukeburwa, kubera ko bashobora kuyobya abaturage no kudusubiza mu icuraburindi. Mu by’ukuri, iyi nkuru yagombye kuba nk’intabaza. Kuko ubundi umunyamakuru, iyo afashe ikaramu n’urupapuro bye, agomba kubanza kwibaza niba icyo agiye kwandika hari icyo kizamarira cyangwa kizungura umusomyi n’umuturage muri rusange. Iyo nta kamaro, nta mpamvu yo gutakaza igihe cye ngo arandika.

Vuba aha mperutse gusoma inkuru y’umunyamakuru wirukanywe muri Canada, kubera ko yashushanyije mu buryo busebeje Perezida wa Amerika. Bidateye kabiri, mbona ibindi bitangazamakuru bisebya umukuru w’ikindi gihugu, na we ukiri ku butegetsi, bimujora mu buryo budakwiye, butarimo ikinyabupfura. Igitangaje ni uko ibyo bitangazamakuru bitahagaritswe kubera gusebanya.

None se, koko itangazamakuru risebanya, ritubaha , ni ryo dukeneye? Bibaza se ko bitababaza abasomyi nubwo batavuga? None kuba umunyamakuru yandika akantu, wenda kanafitiye umuturage akamaro, ariko kadashimishije abanyabubasha, bakamuhagurukana kandi ibyo avuga byabaye, maze habaho gusebanya bagaceceka, ibyo bivuze iki?

Umunyamakuru arihandagaza akandika ku muturage cyangwa umunyamakuru mugenzi, mu mvugo itiyubashye, ngo araneza ubutegetsi? Bitangira gutyo ababishinzwe barebera, ejo n’ejobundi hakazabaho kwicuza ingaruka!

Niba nta cyemezo bene abo banyamakuru bafatirwa, nta kabuza abasomyi bazavuga ko batumwa n’ubutegetsi! Hari ibyo umunyamakuru adakwiriye kwandika cyangwa kuvuga ku muyobozi cyangwa umutegetsi runaka, barimo n’abo mu mahanga. Bihanirwa ndetse n’amategeko. Aho rero ni ho itangazamakuru rikeneye gukeburwa, kugira ngo ejo ritazongera kuturoha kubera isebanya, ibinyoma n’inyandiko zidafitiye umumaro abasomyi.

Mpora mvuga, kandi ni na ryo hame, ko itangazamakuru ryiza ari irizana amahoro n’ituze mu baturage. Abakora ibinyuranyije n’ibyo, bicare bazi ko amateka azabibabaza, nk’uko byagendekeye ba Kantano, ba Ngeze Hassan n’abandi bose babibye itangazamakuru ry’urwango.

Abanyamakuru nk’aba, baratukisha umwuga. Ni icyasha muri bagenzi babo bashishikajwe no gusigasira itangazamakuru nk’imwe mu nkingi z’igihugu. Mbagiriye inama, bashaka ibindi bakora, babifashijwemo n’ababari inyuma. Bakabisa abiyemeje gukora ibyo abaturage bafitemo inyungu.

Harakabaho itangazamakuru ryubaka kandi risigasira amahoro.

 

Izindi wakunda

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