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Amakuru Iyobokamana

Urugomo mu Madini – Igice cya Kane

Ntagengwa Omar Servil

Urugomo mu Madini – Igice cya gatatu

3.2. Urugomo (violence) :

Gusesengura violence duhereye mu byahishuwe (révélation)

Ibyahishuwe ni amagambo azwi nk’ava ku Mana. Muri uwo murongo nta cyava ku Mana cyagombye kurangwamo urugomo cg ibisa narwo kuko bivuye ku Mana y’Ukuri, ikunda Ukuri kandi y’Urukundo. Mu nyandiko nyinshi zitandukanye ndetse mu bitabo byitwa bitagatifu harangwamo imvugo z’urugomo rweruye. Aha havuka ibibazo bibiri :

1/Ese koko ibyo twita ibitabo bitagatifu byahishuwe byavuye ku Mana ?

2/ Imana nziza y’Amahoro yashyigikira urugomo ?

Mu kugerageza gusubiza ibi bibazo turareba imiterere y’ibyitwa ijambo ry’Imana. Nkuko nabivuze hejuru ijambo ry’Imana haba mu myumvire ya kisilamu cg iya gikristu, Ijambo ry’Imana kenshi riza rije gusobanura igikorwa abantu bakoze hagati yabo, noneho Imana ikazana urumuri kuri cyo cg se igisobanuro, icyerekezo. Dufashe urugero kw’ivanjiri ya Yezu.

Yohani 6:1-16 Yezu atubura imigati. Ikigaragara ni uko icyitwa ijambo ry’Imana gihera ku bantu baje basanga Yezu ahantu ku Kiyaga cya Tibériade. Si Imana itangiye ivuga,ahubwo ni igikorwa kibaye noneho Imana ihatangira ubutumwa.

Ibi rero bivuze ko iyo dusanze urugomo mu byahishuwe, biba ari Imana ivuga urugomo ruri mu Bantu noneho ikaza kubabwira uko babyitwaramo. Ibyo kandi bishobora no gushingira k’uburyo iyo mbaga (Oumat cg nation) ibayeho, niba urogomo ari rwo rurangiza ibibazo hagati y’abantu, Imana yaruvugaho nk’ibibutsa uko basanzwe bacyemura ibibazo byabo, noneho nyuma ikazabagarura ku nzira yo kurwirinda.

Bishobora no kuba kandi mu mvugo isa n’itinyisha nk’ubwira Umwana ati ni wongera ndaguca amatwi nyamara utayamuca. Aha biza gutera ikibazo kuko inyandiko dufite uyu munsi zamanutse mu buryo bw’imvugo nyamara twe tukaba tubitunze nk’ibyanditse. (différence entre l’oral et l’écrit).

Urugero rwa Coran 9:5 ; cg 9:29 , Bibiliya Marc 9:42. Ubisoma mu gitabo uyu munsi abifata nk’itegeko nyamara mu gihe cy’ihishurwa byari mu rurimi gusa nko guca intege (dissuasion) uyu munsi tukabifata nk’ihame kuko tutiha umwanya wo kubisesengura bya nyabyo twitwaje ihame ry’uko ibivuye ku Mana bidasuzumwa, bifatwa uko bije n’uko byumvikanye byumvikanishijwe n’abiyise abahagararizi b’ubwo butumwa. (médiateurs) Kuri iyi violence hiyongeraho violence ivugwa izaranga Umunsi w’Imperuka, aho Imana ivuga uko izagenza abayigometseho mu buzima bwabo bwo mw’isi.

3.2.1. Gusesengura violence duhereye mu buryo abantu bagennye imyemerere (conceptualisation théologique) guerre juste : St Augustin, St Thomas D’Aquin, Jihad : Intambara ntagatifu mu bayisilamu.

Uretse ko violence iboneka mu bitabo byitwa bitagatifu, tunayisanga mu nyigisho zakozwe n’abayobozi b’amadini zizwi nka theologiya cg sciences z’idini (ulum diin). Nta warondora ibice bikubiyemo izo nyigisho ngo azirangize. Tugiye kurebera hamwe ibihe bikomeye byaranze iyo myigishirize.

Mu bukristu uwitwa Mutagatifu Augustini (354-430) yatangije ihame ryitwa Intambara ikwiye (la guerre juste) uwitwa St Thomas d’Aquin(1225-1274) mu k’umwunganira abyita intambara ntagatifu (guerre sainte).

Ubusanzwe ihame ry’amadini rivuga ko amadini akomora ibyo avuga kw’Ijambo ry’Imana. Nyamara iyo witegereje imikorere yayo usanga ahubwo ibyo yita Ijambo ry’Imana rimara Umuhango wo kuyabera ishingiro (légitimité) bamara kuyifata bakisubirira mu byabo twakwita gakondo (tradition).

Uwitwa Frank Bourgeois avuga kw’inyigisho za Saint Augustin azivana kuri Platon, akanyura kuri Aristote agakomeza no kwa Cicéron mu buryo bemezaga Intambara batezaga mu bo bitaga aba « Barbares ». Ikigaragara ni uko Saint Augustin n’abandi bitwa pères latins de l’Eglise basimbutse Yezu bavuga ko bakurikira ndetse banakorera bajya gushaka kure mu mico (y’abagiliki ba mbere).

Frank Bourgeois yibaza ikibazo n’undi wese yakwibaza agira ati : [···] : ni ryari ibitekerezo by’aba philosophes b’abapagani byinjiye bikanashyirwa mu myigishirize ya Gikristu kugeza ubwo byinjijwe mu mategeko ya Kiliziya (droit canon) ?

Iki kibazo kijyanye n’Intambara Amadini(ndaza kubyerekana no mu buyisilamu kuko hose bisa) yita ntagatifu gihabanye n’Ijambo ry’Imana. Yesu mu nyingisho ze ntarwanya gusa Urugomo, ntaruteza ntanarushyigikira ahubwo ajya kure guhashya impamvu shingiro ziruteza. Mw’Ivanjiri ya Mat 5 : 43-44 agaragaza uburyo bwo kurenga kure impamvu z’ururgomo aho agaragaza ko nta mwanzi, ukwiye kubaho n’iyo we yaba abishaka, Paulo mu rwandiko ku Baroma 12 : 17-18 agaragaza imvugo isa n’iyo dusanga muri coran nzavugaho nyuma ko nta mpamvu yo kubaho kw’uwo twakwita Umwanzi. Bityo tugatsindira urugomo mw’ikubitiro (à l’origine) aho gushaka kurunesha twamaze kuruteza. St Augustin na bagenzi be uko nabavuze hejuru, bashyira imbere uburyo bwo kururwanya nyamara bagize uruhare m’ukuruteza igihe babona bagenzi babo mu yindi shusho y’abandi (les autres).

Ibi bitandukanye n’inyigisho za Yezu kuko atugaragariza isoko yo kugira Roho y’Imana (nafsi) muri twe bityo, undi akatubera indorerwamo yacu muri we aho kuba undi duhindura Umwanzi ngo kuko tutumva ibintu kimwe. Ibi byagaragaye aho Kiliziya yarwanyije inatwika abitwa Abatannye (hérésie) ; mu ntambara zizwi kw’izina ry’abanyamisaraba (croisades), inquisitions, tutibagiwe uburyo yahembereye urwango ku Bayahudi bikabaviramo génocide. Uwitwa Henri Tincq mu nyandiko ye yo ku wa 09/09/015 yise Violence et sacré yaribajije

Ati : Bishoboka bite kw’idini yakorewe urugomo yamara gutsinda nayo ikarukorera abandi ? (religion persécutée devient persécutrice) Henri akomeza avuga ko Kiliziya ibwira abayoboke bayo ko uretse n’uko barwana intambara ntagagatifu, iyo ntambara inabaha ubutagatifu bo ubwabo, bityo uguye k’urugamba nka ruriya ahinduka igitambo (martyr) : (uko niko na Daesh yigisha)

N’ubwo Abapadiri ba mbere (les pères de l’église) barimo Tertullien, Origène, babanje kwanga ko abakristu barwana, Origène yokejwe igitutu na Celse w’Umupagani wabaregaga ko babaho nk’indorerezi, yageze aho yemera ko bikwiye kw’abakirisitu barwana barengera Ingoma yabo (y’Abaromani) barwanya abo bitaga aba « barabares ». Uwitwa Ambroise wa Millan, akaba n’umuyoboke wa Cicéron arerura avuka ko kurwanya aba barbare bihwanye n’ivanjiri ya Yezu maze abishishikariza abapadiri yayoboraga . Nibutse k’uyu Ambroise ari m’ubo St Augustin akomoraho inyigisho ze.

Ashingiye kuri izo nyigisho, uwitwa Saint Bernard de Clervaux (1090-1153) ahimbiraho inyandiko yamamaye yiswe Eloge de la nouvelle milice yahamagariraga abeza mu bakristu kwica aba Sarasins (abasilamu). Ibi birakwereka ubukana, urukundo rwo kwica no gupfa mu cyizere cyo kubona ijuru ry’Imana. Iyi mivugire y’aba banyedini ba gikristu irasa neza neza n’iy’abasilamu bakora ibikorwa nka biriya mw’izina ry’idini mu cyiswe Jihad.

 

 

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